JAMB Biology Syllabus 2024/2025

JAMB Biology Syllabus 2024/2025; This article is about the latest JAMB Biology syllabus. A syllabus lists all exam/class topics. JAMB’s syllabus is a list of topics for UTME preparation. Newsedung.com guides excelling in the exam without expos.

This article is for those preparing for the UTME. It has the outlined Biology topics. Follow these steps before getting the 2024/2025 JAMB Form:

  1. Please select a course that you would like to pursue.
  2. Please research the course you have chosen. Explore and gather relevant information to help you gain a better understanding of the course. Make sure to check for any spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors.
  3. Please ensure that you have checked the O’level requirements for the course you have selected. Make sure that you meet all the necessary qualifications before proceeding with your application.
  4. Confirm the JAMB subject combination for the course. If Biology is included, you can proceed.

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JAMB Biology Syllabus 2024/2025 General Objectives: The main goals of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Biology are to demonstrate ample knowledge of the concepts of interdependence and the unity of life; to explain the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution; and to apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially in matters concerning the individual, society, the environment, community health, and the economy. This guide is meant to assist candidates in their preparation for the JAMB examination, ensuring they achieve the stated course objectives. Best of luck in your JAMB Biology preparation!

Jamb Syllabus for Biology 2024/2025

Organisms are diverse in terms of living characteristics, cell structure and functions of cell components, and level of organization. The level of organization ranges from cells (e.g., Amoeba, cheek cell), tissues (e.g., epithelial tissues), organs (e.g., leaf and heart), and systems (e.g., reproductive), to organisms (e.g., Chlamydomonas). Evolutionary changes can be observed among different organisms such as Monera (prokaryotes), Protista (protozoans and protophyta), Fungi, Plantae (plants) including Thallophyta (e.g., Spirogyra), Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts) e.g. Bryachymenium and Merchantia, Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g., Dryopteris, and Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae) such as Cycads and conifers, and Angiosperms (monocots, e.g., maize; dicots, e.g., water leaf). Animals are also classified into invertebrates and multicellular animals (vertebrates). Invertebrates include coelenterate (e.g., Hydra), Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g., Taenia, Nematoda (roundworms), Annelida (e.g., earthworm), Arthropoda (insects) e.g., Millipedes, ticks, mosquitoes, cockroaches, housefly, bees, butterfly, and Mollusca (e.g., snails). Multicellular animals (vertebrates) include Pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish), Amphibia (e.g., toads and frogs), Reptilia (e.g., lizards, snakes, and turtles), Aves (birds), and Mammalia (mammals). Organisms have adaptations in terms of structural/functional and behavioral features, adaptive coloration and its functions, as well as behavioral Adaptations in social animals and structural adaptations.

Part B: Form & Functions

(a) The internal structure of a flowering plant includes the root, stem, and leaf. (b) The internal structure of a mammal.

2. Nutrition

Modes of nutrition are categorized into two types: autotrophic and heterotrophic. Additionally, there are different types of nutrition. In plant nutrition, there are two main categories: photosynthesis and mineral requirements including macro and micro-nutrients. Animal nutrition, on the other hand, involves several classes of food substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts, and water. Additionally, there are various food tests, including starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, and fat. The mammalian tooth has different structures, types, and functions. The mammalian alimentary canal is responsible for the nutrition process, which includes ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.

3. Transport

(a) The need for transportation

(b) Materials that require transportation include excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrients, water, and hormones.

(c) There are two channels for transportation:

i. Mammalian circulatory system – This includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.

ii. Plant vascular system – This includes the phloem and xylem.

(d) The media and processes used for transportation may vary depending on the organism.

4. Respiration

Below are the topics covered:

(a) Respiratory organs and surfaces

(b) Gaseous exchange mechanisms in:

i. Plants

ii. Mammals

(c) Aerobic respiration

(d) Anaerobic respiration

5. Excretion

Types of excretory structures include contractile vacuole, flame cell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma, and lenticel. Excretory mechanisms include kidneys, lungs, and skin. Plants excrete waste products such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

6. Support and movement

(a) Plants exhibit various movements including tropic, tactic, nastic, and sleep movements. b) Animals have supporting tissues. c) The skeleton in animals has different types and functions such as exoskeleton, endoskeleton, and their respective functions.

7. Reproduction

(a) Types of sexual reproduction

i. Fission, as observed in Paramecium

ii. Budding, as observed in yeast

iii. Natural vegetative propagation

iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.

(b) Sexual reproduction in flowering plants

i. Floral parts and their respective functions

ii. Pollination and fertilization

iii. Products of sexual reproduction

(c) Reproduction in mammals

i. Structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs

ii. Fertilization and development (fusion of gametes).

8. Growth

Here are two topics: the meaning of growth and the conditions necessary for seed germination.

9. Co-ordination and control

(a) Nervous Coordination:

i. Understand the components, structure, and functions of the central nervous system.

ii. Know the components and functions of the peripheral nervous system.

iii. Learn about the mechanism of transmission of impulses.

iv. Understand the concept of reflex action.

(b) The Sense Organs:

i. Understand the role of skin in tactile sensation.

ii. Understand the function of the nose in olfactory sensation.

iii. Learn about the role of the tongue in taste sensation.

iv. Understand the function of the eye in sight sensation.

v. Understand the role of the ear in auditory sensation.

(c) Hormonal Control:

i. Learn about the hormonal system in animals, including the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, and gonads.

ii. Understand the concept of plant hormones (phytohormones).

(d) Homeostasis:

i. Understand the body’s temperature regulation mechanism.

ii. Understand the mechanism of salt and water regulation.

Part C: Ecology

1. Factors affecting the distribution of organisms:

i. Abiotic

ii. Biotic

2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals:

a. Food chains, food webs, and trophic levels

b. Energy flow in the ecosystem

c. Nutrient cycling in nature:

i. Carbon cycle

ii. Water cycle

iii. Nitrogen cycle

3. Natural habitats:

a. Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes, seashores, and mangrove swamps)

b. Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy savanna field, and burrow or hole)

4. Local (Nigerian) biomes:

a. Tropical rainforest

b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)

c. Sudan savanna

d. Desert

e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, and Mambilla Plateau.

5. The ecology of populations:

a. Population density and overcrowding.

b. Factors affecting population sizes:

i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).

ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.)

c. Ecological succession:

i. Primary succession

ii. Secondary succession

6. Soil:

a. Characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)

i. Soil structure

ii. Porosity, capillarity, and humus content

iii. Components of the soil:

i. Inorganic

ii. Organic

iii. Soil organisms

b. Soil fertility:

i. Loss of soil fertility

ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility

7. Humans and environment:

a. Diseases:

i. Common and endemic diseases

ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndromes such as:

– Poliomyelitis

– Cholera

– Tuberculosis

– Sexually transmitted diseases/syndromes (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.)

b. Pollution and its control:

i. Sources, types, effects, and methods of control

ii. Sanitation and sewage

c. Conservation of natural resources

d. Game reserves and national parks

Part D: Heredity and Variations

1. Variation in Population:

(a) Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals:

(i) Size (height, weight)

(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales, and feathers)

(iii) Fingerprints

(b) Physiological variation:

(i) Ability to roll tongue

(ii) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

(iii) Blood groups

(c) Applications of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion, and determination of paternity.

2. Heredity:

(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms:

(i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.

(b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity:

(i) Structure

(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

(c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.

(d) Applications of the principles of heredity in:

(i) Agriculture

(ii) Medicine

(e) Sex-linked characters, e.g., baldness, hemophilia, color blindness, etc.

Part E: Evolution

Below are the three theories of evolution: Lamarck’s theory, Darwin’s theory, and organic theory. Additionally, the evidence of evolution will be discussed.

Summary of the JAMB Syllabus for Biology

The JAMB/UTME syllabus for biology encompasses five primary topics and fifty-seven (57) subtopics. Ecology is the first topic, while the final one explores an assortment of organisms. A comprehensive list of these topics and their corresponding subtopics is provided below.


There are a total of fifteen (15) sub-topics included in this particular topic. They are listed below for your reference:


After studying the above topic, candidates will be able to:

– Understand the impact of various abiotic factors such as temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity, turbidity, pH, and soil conditions on the distribution of living organisms.

– Use suitable instruments like a Secchi disc, thermometer, rain gauge, etc. to measure these abiotic factors accurately.

– Explain how human activities and the activities of other plants/animals affect the distribution of organisms.


After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to locate biomes in different regions of Nigeria and apply the knowledge of the features of the listed local biomes to determine the characteristics of these regions.

3. NATURAL HABITATS (Aquatic and Terrestrial/arboreal)

After reading this topic, candidates will be able to associate plants and animals with their respective habitats. They will also be able to relate the adaptive features of an organism to its habitat.

4. SOIL (Characteristics of different types of soil, Components of the soil, Soil fertility

After reading the topic “Soil”, the reader should be able to do the following:

– Identify physical properties of different types of soil based on simple measurements of particle size, porosity, or water retention ability.

– Experimentally determine the amounts of air, water, humus, and capillarity in different soil types.

– Understand the relationship between soil characteristics, types, and components, and the healthy growth of plants.

– Identify factors such as loss of inorganic matter, compaction, leaching, erosion of the topsoil, and repeated cropping with one variety, and their effects on soil.

– Apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc to enhance soil conservation.


After reading the topic above, candidates should be able to do the following:

1. Apply various methods for conserving both renewable and non-renewable natural resources to safeguard the environment for present and future generations.

2. Identify the benefits of conserving natural resources and preventing desertification.

3. Recognize the organizations responsible for resource conservation at both national and international levels. These organizations include the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria National Parks, World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), and understand their activities.

4. Evaluate the activities of these organizations.

6. DISEASES (Common and endemic diseases,

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to:

– Identify ecological conditions that favor the spread of common endemic and potentially epidemic diseases, such as malaria, meningitis, dracunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, typhoid fever, cholera, etc.

– Relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease with its spread and control.

– Use their knowledge of the causative organisms, mode of transmission, and symptoms of the listed diseases to prevent, treat, and control them.

– Apply the principles of inoculation and vaccination to disease prevention.


Upon completion of this topic, individuals will have the ability to accurately pinpoint the location and discern the importance of game reserves and national parks within the confines of Nigeria. The knowledge gained from this topic is of utmost significance to those who seek a comprehensive understanding of Nigeria’s natural resources and ecological systems.

8. POPULATION AND ITS CONTROL (Sources, types, effects, and methods of control)

Upon reading the aforementioned topic, candidates will be able to:

– Categorize pollution into three types, namely air, water, and soil pollution.

– Understand the impact of common pollutants on both human health and the environment.

– Identify the methods that can be used to control each pollutant.

– Evaluate the significance of sanitation with a focus on solid waste sewage disposal, personal hygiene, and community health.

– Analyze the functions and roles of national and international health agencies such as the World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, International Red Cross Society, and Ministries of Health and Environment.


Upon reading the aforementioned topic, candidates will be able to comprehend the concept of food chains and webs.

10. NUTRIENT CYCLING IN NATURE (Carbon, Water, and Nitrogen circle)

Upon reading the given topic, candidates should be able to:

– Explain the cycle and its importance, particularly the equilibrium between atmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide, and its impact on global warming.

– Evaluate the effects of the water cycle on other nutrient cycles.

– Correlate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the nitrogen cycle.


Please pay attention to the following topic:

Factors that cause competition, including intra- and inter-specific competition, and the relationship between competition and succession.

After studying the above topic, you should be able to:

– Identify appropriate examples of symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, commensalism, mutualism, amensalism, competition, predation, and cooperation among organisms.

– Understand how the distribution of organisms is related to food chains and food webs in specific habitats.


After reading the topic above, candidates should be able to:

– Understand the relationship between the increase in population, diseases, shortage of food and space with intra- and inter-specific competition.

– Identify niche differentiation as a way to reduce intra-specific competition.

– Understand how competition relates to succession.

13. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION (Primary and Secondary Succession)

After reading the topic above, candidates should be able to understand the succession sequence leading to a stable plant population climax. While reading, please focus on the following points:

– Factors that cause competition

– Intra and inter-specific competition

– The relationship between competition and succession.


After studying the topic above, the readers should be able to:

– Understand the impact of various factors on the population size.

– Analyze the interdependent relationship between living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) factors, such as drought or water scarcity leading to food shortage, and lack of space resulting in a higher rate of diseases.


Upon reading the topic, candidates should be able to determine the reasons for rapid changes in the human population and the consequences of overcrowding. They should also be able to compute the density as the number of organisms per unit area.


This is the second topic, which consists of only two sub-topics. The sub-topics are as follows:


After reading the topics discussed above, the candidate should be able to provide evidence for the theory of evolution, including fossil records, comparative anatomy, physiology, and embryology. They should also be able to trace evolutionary trends in both plants and animals. Furthermore, the candidate should be able to provide evidence for modern evolutionary theories, such as genetic studies and the role of mutation in evolution.


After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to:

– Understand organic evolution as the accumulation of all adaptive changes that occur over an extended period, which leads to the diversity of forms, structures, and functions among living organisms.

– Analyze the contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the theory of evolution.

– Recognize that there is no evidence supporting the idea that organic evolution does not occur.


This is the third main topic and it consists of thirty subtopics. The thirty subtopics are as follows:


After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to apply their knowledge of the necessary conditions for plant germination and differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.


After reading the topic, the reader should be able to accomplish the following:

– Identify the transverse sections of various organs.

– Relate the structure of organs to their functions.

– Identify supporting tissues in plants, such as collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, and phloem fibers.

– Describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stems, and leaves.


After reading the topic, the candidate should be able to examine the arrangement, appearance, and position of mammalian internal organs including the digestive, reproductive, and excretory organs.


After reading about Homeostasis, candidates should be able to understand how hormones function to regulate the levels of materials within the body. Additionally, while reading about this topic, it is important to focus on comprehending the regulation of body temperature, as well as salt and water levels in the body.

5. HORMONAL CONTROL (Animal and Plant Hormone)

Please make sure to study the “Hormonal Control” section thoroughly to be able to achieve the following:

– Identify the endocrine glands found in animals.

– Understand the functions of the hormones produced by each gland.

– Analyze the impact of different phytohormones such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and ethylene on various plant processes such as growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening, and leaf abscission.


Please focus on the following while reading about the nervous system:

– Understand the components, structure, and functions of the central nervous system.

– Learn about the components and functions of the peripheral nervous system.

– Understand the mechanism of transmission of impulses.

– Know about reflex action.

After studying the nervous co-ordination, make sure you can:

– Apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the central nervous system to understand how body functions are coordinated in organisms.

– Illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerk, etc.

– Differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle, and swimming.


To understand the sense organs, it’s important to focus on five specific ones: the skin (for tactile sensation), the nose (for olfactory sensation), the tongue (for taste sensation), the eye (for visual sensation), and the ear (for auditory sensation). Once you’ve familiarized yourself with these sense organs, it’s important to be able to identify their functions and understand how they work. This knowledge can be applied to detect and correct any defects in these organs.


While studying the excretory mechanisms, it is important to pay attention to the following organs: kidneys, lungs, and skin. Once you have studied the excretory mechanisms, it is crucial to be able to relate the structure of the kidneys to their excretory and osmoregulatory functions, as well as identify the functions and excretory products of the lungs and skin.


Upon reading about the excretory products of plants, you should be able to determine the economic importance of these products such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, tannins, resins, gums, mucilage, and alkaloids.


“While studying the different types of excretory structures, pay attention to the following:

– Contractile vacuole

– Flame cell

– Nephridium

– Malpighian tubule

– Kidney

– Stoma and lenticel.

After studying the types of excretory structures, candidates should be able to:

– Define excretion and explain its significance.

– Describe the functions of each structure and their characteristics.”


Upon completing the Animal Nutrition course, candidates will be able to do the following:

– Identify the sources of different classes of food.

– Understand the importance of each class of food and their deficiencies, such as scurvy, rickets, and kwashiorkor.

– Determine the significance of a balanced diet.

– Detect the presence of certain food items from the results of a given experiment.

– Describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth.

– Differentiate between types of mammalian teeth and relate their structures to their functions.

– Compare the dental formulae of humans, sheep, and dogs.

– Relate the structure of the various components of the alimentary canal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their functions.

– Identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes.

– Associate enzymes with the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

– Determine the end products of these classes of food.

12. MODES OF NUTRITION (Autotrophic and Heterotrophic)

After studying the different modes of nutrition, candidates should be able to compare photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes of nutrition, provide examples from flowering and non-flowering plants, and compare autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.


After reading about plant nutrition, you should be able to:

– Differentiate between the light and dark reactions and state the conditions necessary for photosynthesis.

– Determine the importance of light, carbon dioxide, and chlorophyll in photosynthesis.

– Detect the presence of starch in a leaf as evidence of photosynthesis.

– Identify the macro and micro elements required by plants.

– Recognize the symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deficiency in plants.


After learning about the different types of nutrition, candidates should be able to differentiate between examples of holozoic (sheep and humans), parasitic (roundworms, tapeworms, and Loranthus), saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushrooms), and carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort), and determine their nutritional value.

15. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (Under Reproduction)

Please pay attention to the following topics while reading:

– Fission in Paramecium

– Budding in yeast

– Natural vegetative propagation

– Artificial vegetative propagation

After reading the above topics, candidates should be able to:

– distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction

– utilize natural vegetative propagation for crop production and multiplication

– apply grafting, budding, and layering techniques in agricultural practices.


After studying the topic of reproduction in mammals, please ensure that you can:

– differentiate between male and female reproductive organs.

– understand how their structure and function contribute to the production of offspring.

– describe the process of fertilization as the fusion of gametes.

– understand how the mother’s health, nutrition, and use of drugs can affect the development of the embryo up to birth.

– learn about modern methods of regulating reproduction, such as in-vitro fertilization and birth control.


After reading the topic above, ensure that you can:

– Understand how different parts of flowers relate to their functions and the reproductive process.

– Analyze the benefits of cross-pollination.

– Determine the various types of placentation that develop into simple, aggregate, multiple, and succulent fruits.


Make sure you can examine the role of oxygen in releasing energy for living organisms and deduce the effects of inadequate oxygen supply to muscles.


Make sure you can use yeast and sugar solutions to demonstrate the fermentation process and understand the economic significance of yeasts.


After studying respiration, it is important to be able to:

– Understand the importance of respiration.

– Explain a simplified version of the chemical process involved in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, including the role of ATP.

– Deduce information about gaseous exchange, production of heat energy, and products involved in respiration from experimental setups.


Ensure you can describe the respiratory organs and surfaces where organisms occur, including the body surface, gills, trachea, lungs, stomata, and lenticel.


Ensure you can describe the mechanism of stomata opening and closing, and determine respiratory movements in animals.


Please make sure to read the topic “Support and Movement” carefully. After that, you should be able to determine the need for support and movement in organisms. You should also be able to identify supporting tissues in plants, including collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, and phloem fibers. Additionally, you should be able to describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stems, and leaves.

24. SUPPORTING TISSUES IN ANIMALS (Under Support and Movement)

Upon reading the aforementioned topic, the individual should be able to comprehend the following:

– The significance of the location of chitin, cartilage, and bone in terms of their supportive function.

– The correlation between the structure and general layout of the mammalian skeleton and their supportive, locomotive, and respiratory functions.

– The differentiation of types of joints using appropriate examples.


After reading the topic above, it is important to understand how plants respond to stimuli such as light, water, gravity, and touch. You should also be able to identify the growth regions in roots and shoots, as well as understand the role of auxins in tropism.


Make sure you understand how the skeleton’s functions protect, support, and help animals move and breathe.






This is the fourth topic, which includes four sub-topics:

1. Heredity

2. Variation in population – Application of Discontinuous Variation in Crime Detection, Blood Transfusion, and Determination of Paternity

3. Variation in population – Morphological Variations in the Physical Appearance of Individuals

4. Variation in population – Physiological Variation.


This is the final/fifth topic, which consists of six sub-topics. They are as follows:

1. Adaptive coloration and its functions

2. Behavioural adaptations in social animals

3. Evolution among living organisms

4. Structural adaptations in organisms

5. Structural/functional and behavioral adaptations of organisms.

If you want to score above 95 in Biology, you must read and understand these sub-topics. It may seem like a daunting task, but with hard work and prayer, it is achievable. Remember to take breaks and have fun too!

  • Ndu, F.O.C., Abun A., and Aina J.O. (2001). Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1-3. Lagos: Longman.
  • Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann.
  • Ogunniyi M.B., Adebisi A.A., and Okojie J.A. (2000). Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1-3. Macmillan.
  • Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) wrote a book called “Modern Biology” as part of the SS Science Series. This is the new edition of the book published by AFP.
  • The book is titled “Biology for Senior Secondary Schools” and was authored by Stan in 2004. It is a revised edition published by Heinemann in Ibadan.
  • Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools, published by Longman.
  • Usua, E.J. (1997). Handbook of Practical Biology, 2nd Edition. University Press Limited.

It is recommended that you go through the topics listed here as they will help you in your focused study and reading for the JAMB Biology exam. That’s all for now. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask us in the comment section below, as we understand that you might have a few.

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