JAMB Chemistry Syllabus 2024/2025

JAMB Chemistry Syllabus 2024/2025; Are you gearing up for the JAMB examination this year? Perhaps you’re searching for the most up-to-date JAMB Chemistry syllabus for 2024/2025. Look no further! We have curated a comprehensive list of critical topics and recommended textbooks for Chemistry in JAMB UTME. To achieve a score of 300 and above, which is crucial for success, it’s essential to prepare thoroughly.

JAMB Chemistry Syllabus 2024/2025

Proper exam preparation is crucial and involves obtaining appropriate materials and books. For students preparing for their Chemistry exam, JAMB has thoughtfully offered the JAMB Syllabus for Chemistry. This invaluable resource serves as a roadmap, delineating the subject matter and corresponding textbooks that candidates should acquire.

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It is worth noting that the JAMB Chemistry Syllabus has a unique feature where it outlines the expected abilities of candidates after studying each topic. This is aimed at helping candidates feel prepared and confident when faced with questions during the examination. To increase your chances of success, it is advisable to study the JAMB Chemistry Syllabus and consult the recommended textbooks. Adopting this strategic approach will undoubtedly enhance your performance in the JAMB examination. We wish you the best of luck in your preparations!

Jamb Chemistry Syllabus 2024/2025 General Objective

The syllabus for the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) in Chemistry is aimed at preparing candidates for the Board’s exam. The course objectives are designed to test the candidates’ ability to apply basic principles of scientific methods in new situations, interpret scientific data, deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences, and apply knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

Jamb Syllabus for Chemistry 2024/2025

1. Separation of Mixtures and Purification of Chemical Substance 

This text discusses pure and impure substances, boiling and melting points, elements, compounds, and mixtures, and separation processes such as evaporation, distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, and chromatography.

2. Chemical Combination

Stoichiometry, the laws of definite and multiple proportions, the law of conservation of matter, Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes, and Avogadro’s law are fundamental concepts in chemistry. These concepts help us understand chemical symbols, formulas, and equations, which are essential for studying chemical reactions. Relative atomic mass based on 12C=12, the mole concept, and Avogadro’s number are also important ideas that are used to measure and quantify chemical substances.

3. Kinetic Theory of Matter & Gas Law

The following topics will be covered in this section:

(a) The kinetic theory of matter, which includes an explanation of melting, vaporization, and reverse processes. Melting and boiling are explained based on molecular motion and Brownian movement.

(b) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham, and Dalton (including the law of partial pressure), combined gas law, molar volume, and atomicity of gases.

4. Atomic Structure & Bonding

(a) (i) This section covers the concept of atoms, molecules, and ions. It includes the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford, Mosely, Thompson, and Bohr. The simple hydrogen spectrum and ionization of gases are also discussed, illustrating the electron as a fundamental particle of matter.

(ii) This section covers atomic structure, electron configuration, atomic number, mass number, and isotopes. Specific examples should be drawn from elements of atomic numbers 1 to 20. It also covers the shapes of the s and p orbitals.

(b) This section covers the periodic table and periodicity of elements. It presents the periodic table with a view to recognizing families of elements such as alkali metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals. The variation of the following properties should be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii, electron affinity, and electronegativity.

(c) This section covers chemical bonding, including electrovalency and covalency. It discusses the electron configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure. It also covers hydrogen bonding and metallic bonding as special types of electrovalency and covalency, respectively. The coordinate bond is also discussed as a type of covalent bond, as illustrated by complexes like [Fe(CN)6]3-, [Fe(CN)6]4-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+, and [Ag(NH3)2]+. Van der Waals’ forces are mentioned as a special type of bonding force.

(d) This section covers the shapes of simple molecules, including linear ((H2, O2, Cl2, HCl, and CO2), non-linear (H2O), and tetrahedral (CH4).

(e) This section covers nuclear chemistry, including radioactivity (elementary treatment only) and nuclear reactions. Simple equations, uses, and applications of natural and artificial radioactivity are discussed.

5. Air

The air we breathe is typically made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and noble gases such as argon and neon. The amount of oxygen in the air can be determined by burning phosphorus or using alkaline pyrogallol. Air is a mixture of these gases and noble gases have a variety of uses.

6. Water

This text appears to be a comprehensive note on the topic of water, covering a range of aspects including its composition, hardness, purification methods, and other properties. It delves into the composition of water, discussing its role as a solvent and the atmospheric gases that dissolve in it, as well as their biological significance. The note also explores the differences between hard and soft water, including temporary and permanent hardness, and outlines techniques for softening hard water. It goes on to touch upon the purification of town water supplies, and introduces concepts such as water crystallization, efflorescence, deliquescence, and hygroscopy, providing examples of substances that exhibit these properties and their practical uses.

7. Solubility

The following topics will be covered:

(a) Different types of solutions including unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions, along with solubility curves and simple deductions that can be made from them. Solubility will be defined in terms of mole per dm3 and simple calculations will be performed.

(b) The use of solvents for fats, oil, and paints, and how they can be used to remove stains.

(c) Suspensions and colloids will also be discussed. Examples of suspensions include Harmattan haze and paints, while examples of colloids include fog, milk, aerosol spray, and rubber solution.

8. Acids, Base & Salt

(a) This section covers the general characteristics and properties of acids, bases, and salts. It also includes information on acid/base indicators, the basicity of acids, normal, acidic, basic, and double salts. An acid is defined as a substance that provides H3O+ ions in its aqueous solution or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric, and tartaric acids are examples of naturally occurring organic acids, while alums are examples of double salts. The text also covers the preparation of salts through neutralization, precipitation, and the action of acids on metals. Additionally, it discusses oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts.

(b) In this section, you will find a qualitative comparison of the conductances of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases. It also explains the relationship between conductance, the amount of ions present, and their relative mobilities.

(c) The pH and pOH scales are discussed in this section. pH is defined as -log[H3O+].

(d) Acid/base titrations are explained in this section.

(e) This section covers the hydrolysis of salts, including simple examples such as NH4C1, AICI3, Na2CO3, and CH3COONa.

9. Oxidation and Reduction

Please find below a brief explanation of the concept of oxidation and reduction:

(a) Oxidation involves the addition of oxygen or the removal of hydrogen.

(b) Reduction, on the other hand, involves the removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.

(c) Oxidation and reduction can also be seen in terms of electron transfer.

(d) The use of oxidation numbers is a common way to keep track of oxidation and reduction reactions. Oxidation and reduction can be treated as a change in oxidation number, and oxidation numbers can be used to balance simple equations. Additionally, we use IUPAC nomenclature to name inorganic compounds.

(e) Lastly, tests for oxidizing and reducing agents are available to help identify whether a substance is an oxidizing or reducing agent.

10. Electrolysis

(a) The distinction between electrolytes and non-electrolytes, as well as Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, are important concepts to understand.

(b) The process of electrolysis can be applied to various solutions, including dilute H2SO4, aqueous CuSO4, CuC12, dilute and concentrated NaCl solutions, and fused NaCl. It is important to consider factors that affect the discharge of ions at the electrodes.

(c) Electrolysis has many uses, such as purifying metals like copper and producing elements and compounds like Al, Na, O2, Cl2, and NaOH.

(d) Redox series (K, Na, Ca, Mg, AI, Zn, Fe, PbII, H, Cu, Hg, Au,), half-cell reactions, and electrode potentials are all essential components of electrochemical cells. Simple calculations are typically involved.

(e) Corrosion is an electrolytic process, but there are various methods to prevent it, such as cathodic protection of metals, painting, electroplating, and coating with grease or oil.

11. Energy Charge

These are some important concepts related to energy changes, entropy and spontaneity of reactions:

(a) Energy changes (∆H) occur during physical and chemical changes such as dissolution of substances in water or reaction with water. For instance, Na, NaOH, K, NH4, and Cl can undergo endothermic (+∆H) or exothermic (-∆H) reactions.

(b) Entropy is a phenomenon related to order and disorder. Examples include the mixing of gases and the dissolution of salts.

(c) The spontaneity of reactions is determined by the value of ∆G, which is the free energy change. When ∆G is zero, the reaction is at equilibrium. If ∆G is greater or less than zero, the reaction is non-spontaneous or spontaneous, respectively.

12. Rates of Chemical Reaction

Please take note of the following topics for the elementary treatment of factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction:

(a) Temperature – For example, the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl.

(b) Concentration – For instance, the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble, and the iodine clock reaction. For gaseous systems, pressure may be used as the concentration term.

(c) Surface Area – For example, the reaction between marble and HCl in powdered form or lumps of the same mass.

(d) Catalyst – For instance, the decomposition of H2O2 or KCIO3 in the presence or absence of MnO2.

Other topics to consider are concentration/time curves, activation energy, qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and the collision theory, and the effect of light on some reactions, such as the halogenation of alkanes.

13. Chemical Equilibrium

Factors that govern the equilibrium position of reversible reactions, including dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle, and equilibrium constant. Simple examples include the reaction of steam on iron and N2O4 2NO2. Calculations are not required.

14. Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: This topic includes commercial production of hydrogen from water gas and cracking of petroleum fractions, laboratory preparation, properties, uses, and hydrogen tests.

(b) Halogens: Chlorine is a representative element of the halogen. This topic includes laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties, and uses, such as water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics, and insecticides. It also covers hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid, their preparation, properties, and uses, as well as chlorides and the test for chlorides.

(c) Oxygen and Sulphur:

(i) Oxygen: This topic covers laboratory preparation, properties, and uses, as well as commercial production from liquid air. It also includes oxides, such as acidic, basic, amphoteric, and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope, and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere.

(ii) Sulphur: It covers uses and allotropes, preparation and properties of sulphur (IV) oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis, trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate (IV), tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid, commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating agent, and uses. It also includes the test for SO42-, hydrogen sulphide, its preparation and properties as a weak acid, reducing and precipitating agents, and the test for S2-.

(d) Nitrogen:

(i) This topic covers laboratory preparation of nitrogen.

(ii) Production from liquid air.

(iii) Ammonia: This topic includes laboratory and industrial preparations (Haber Process only), properties and uses, ammonium salts and their uses, oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (IV) oxide and trioxonitrate (V) acid. It also includes the test for NH4+.

(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid: This topic covers laboratory preparation from ammonia, properties and uses, and trioxonitrate (V) salt-action of heat and uses. It also includes the test for NO3-.

(v) Oxides of nitrogen: This topic covers properties and the nitrogen cycle.

(e) Carbon:

(i) Allotropes, uses and properties.

(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide: This topic covers laboratory preparation, properties and uses. It also includes the action of heat on trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for CO32-.

(iii) Carbon(II) oxide: This topic covers laboratory preparation, properties, including its effect on blood, and sources of carbon (II) oxide to include charcoal, fire and exhaust fumes.

(iv) Coal: This topic covers different types of coal and products obtained from destructive distillation of wood and coal.

(v) Coke: It includes gasification and uses, manufacture of synthesis gas and uses.

15. Metals and their compounds

Below are some topics on metals that you may find useful:

(a) General properties of metals.

(b) Alkali metals such as sodium:

(i) Sodium hydroxide – produced by electrolysis of brine. Its uses include precipitating metallic hydroxides and reacting with aluminium, zinc, and lead ions.

(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV) and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV) – produced by the Solvay process. These are used in the manufacture of glass and have various other properties and uses.

(iii) Sodium chloride – occurs naturally in seawater and has various uses. The recovery of sodium chloride is economically important.

(c) Alkaline-earth metals such as calcium:

Properties, uses, and preparation of calcium oxide from seashells. The chemical composition of cement, the setting of mortar, and tests for Ca2+.

(d) Aluminium:

Purification of bauxite, electrolytic extraction, properties, and uses of aluminium and its compounds. Test for A13+.

(e) Tin:

Extraction from its ores, properties, and uses.

(f) Metals of the first transition series:

Characteristic properties such as electron configuration, oxidation states, complex ion formation, formation of coloured ions, and catalysis.

(g) Iron:

Extraction from sulphide and oxide ores, properties, and uses. Different forms of iron and their properties. Advantages of steel over iron. Tests for Fe2+ and Fe3+.

(h) Copper:

Extraction from sulphide and oxide ores, properties, and uses of copper. Preparation and uses of copper (II) Tetraoxosulphate (VI). Test for Cu2+.

(i) Alloys:

Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type-metal, duralumin, soft solder, permalloy and alnico (constituents, properties, and uses only).

16. Organic Compounds

An introduction to carbon’s tetravalency, its general formula, IUPAC nomenclature, and empirical formula determination for each organic compound class.

This text covers various topics related to hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, amines, and other organic compounds. It covers the physical properties, substitution reactions, and uses of halogenated products in the homologous series of alkanes. The text also discusses isomerism, fractional distillation, and cracking and reforming of petroleum. It covers the production, properties, and uses of alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. The text also covers the production of ethanol by fermentation and from petroleum by-products, including local examples of fermentation and distillation. It also discusses the chemical properties of alkanals, alkanones, alkanoic acids, and alkanoates. The text covers the classification and chemical tests for carbohydrates, hydrolysis of complex sugars, and the uses of sugar and starch in the production of alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals, and textiles. Finally, the text covers the primary structures of proteins, hydrolysis and tests for proteins, and enzymes, and the preparation, examples, and uses of natural and synthetic polymers.

17. Chemistry and Industry

Chemical industries involve different types of raw materials and are of great relevance in modern economies. Biotechnology is a field that also plays an important role in various industries.

Jamb Chemistry Syllabus Recommended Textbook

  • Ababio, O.Y. (2005). New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (Third Edition),
    Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited
  • Bajah, S.T. Teibo, B.O., Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (1999). Senior Secondary Chemistry,
    Book 1, Lagos: Longman
  • Bajah, S.T., Teibo, B.O., Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (2000). Senior Secondary Chemistry,
    Books 2 and 3, Lagos: Longman
  • Ohia, G.N.C., Adewoyin, F.A. and Akpan, B.B. (1997). Exam Focus Chemistry for WASSCE
    & JME: Ibadan: University Press Plc
  • STAN (1987). Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: Heinemann
  • Sylvester: O.O. (2004). A Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools,
    Ibadan: Evans
  • Uche, I.O., Adenuga, I.J. and Iwuagwu, S.L. (2003). Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry,
    Ibadan: Evans
  • Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

It is recommended that you go through the topics mentioned here as they will help you study and prepare effectively for the JAMB Chemistry exam. That’s all for now. If you have any questions, feel free to ask us in the comments section below. We understand that you may have a few queries.

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